Textile Fibres: Classification Of Textile Fibres, General Properties And Characteristics Of Fibres

Classification Of Textile Fibres

There are various types of fibres with different Characteristics.

The fibres Characteristics depends on the source from where it is produced.

Generally, fibres are classified into two major Groups:

1. Natural Fibres

2. Artificial Fibre Or Man Made Fibre Or Synthetic..

1. Natural Fibres: These are fibres produced from natural sources. It can be from animals, plant and animal origin. Example:

A. Plant/Vegetable origin.

i. Blast fibres (jute, flax, ramie)

ii. Leaf fibres (sisal Manila)

iii. Seed and fruit fibres (Cotton)

B. Animal Origin

i. Wood and hair fibre

ii. Silk and other filament.

C. Mineral Origin Example: asbestos

2. Artificial Fibre Or Man Made Fibre Or Synthetic: They are Fibre produced by man through the use of Fibre. They are divided into two groups, namely:

a. Natural polymer based/Cellulose based, Example: Rayon acetate triacetate.

b. Polyester based/Non Cellulose based, Example: nylon, polyester.


There are many substance in nature which resemble Fibre but they are not Fibre because they lack properties of Fibre.

Fibre properties are those characteristics that are used to identify Fibre. The properties are grouped into, Primary and Secondary properties.

Primary Properties: They are obsoletely essential for any substances to qualify as a textile Fibre, This is because it is only fiber processing. These Primary Properties can be converted into yarn and later into fabric.

Secondary Properties: In addition to Primary Properties, there are other properties which are desirable but not very essential.

The secondary properties influence the selection, use, comfort, appearance, durability and maintenance of textile products.

Let use example: Fibre properties relation to Primary and Secondary properties of fibres.

Primary Properties Of Fibres

i. High Fibre length to which ratio for a Fibre to be processed into yarn, It must have length that are much longer than the wide with the minimum length to width ratio is 100:1.

Fibre that is very long is called filament fibre while Fibre that are relatively over short are called staple fibres.

Filament fibres are known for the production of smooth and shinning yarn or fabrics, while staple fibres produces dull yarns and fabrics.

ii. Tenacity/Strength: It is used to describe the Fibre ability to withstand force without breaking during mechanical and chemical processing as well as the textile produce durability.

iii. Flexibility: Fibre require to be pliable that is, fibres ability to bend repeatable without breaking, so it can be made into yarn and fabric.

iv. Cohesiveness Or Spinning Quality: This is the ability to stick together properly during yarn production process.

v. Uniformity: It is used to describe Fibre possessing the same quality (uniformity) in all the given primary properties

Secondary Properties Of Fibres

Fibre Secondary Properties are listed as follows:

a. Elongation: It is Uses to describe the amount of stretch of Fibre accepts or withstands without breaking.

b. Elastic Recovery: It describe the fibres ability to return to its original length after being stretched.

Example of fabric possessing this property is the Lyra Fabric

c. Residency: This is used to describe the fibres ability to return back to its original position after bending, creases or folding.

Resilient fibers recover quickly from wrinkling or creasing. Fibres with high residence include: Wool, nylon and polyester while fibres with low resiliency include: Flax, rayon, and cotton.

d. Moisture Regain: This is the ability of a dry fiber to absorb moisture. This property is also referred to as moisture absorbency. A Fibre possessing high moisture absorbency accepts dye and special finishes and it is easy to launder and provider, greeter comforts value in hot conditions.

Other Fibre Secondary Properties include:

Morphology Flammability electrical conductivity, abrasion resistance, chemical resistance, biological resistance and many others.

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