Seizure Disorders (Types Of Seizure Disorder)

There are three forms of Seizure In Children:

(a) Neonatal Seizure

(b) Febrile Convulsion

(c) Epilepsy.

Febrile convulsion occur between six months and five years.

Epilepsy occur after five years.

What Is Seizure

Seizure is an abnormal electrical discharge of celebral neurone accompanied by motor, sensory or affective phenomenon with or without loss of consciousness.

Of all the three types of seizure disorders, only febrile convulsion will be discussed here.

FEBRILE CONVULSION

This occurs due to excessive fever as the child’s thermo-regulatory mechanism is not well developed to prevent it.

It is an abnormal, response of the developing brain to high fever.

CLINICAL FEATURES

1. Excessive high fever up to 39 C and 40 C

2. Occur in fifteen per one thousand case of high fever within the age group.

3. Age is between six months and five months.

4. Occurs more in male than Females.

5. There is usually a family history of febrile convulsion.

6. It is generalized type of seizure, that is, the tonic and clonic type.

7. It is short lasting. Not more than fifteen minutes.

8. Post ictal sleep.

9. Incontinence of urine and faeces.

10. It is not always recurrent, only one attack per each febrile illness.

PRE-DISPISING FACTORS

1. Malaria

2. Otitis Media

3. UTI

4. Tonilitis

5. Pneumonia

6. Measles

MANAGEMENT OF FEBRILE CONVULSION

1. Keep calm

2. Take off all the child’s clothing.

3. Control fit with either of:

(a) 1m paraldehyde 1cc per year of life. Do not exceed 5cc even if patient is over five years.

(b) 1V Valium 2-5 mg slowly depending on age.

4. Clear airway: Suck and extend neck of baby.

5. Tepid sponge and expose to fan if febrile.

6. Treat based on finding.

7. Give intravenous fluid if child is not taking orally.

Should the above treatment fail to control the fit, It is pertinent to refer the child to a centre where there is a paediatrician.

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